This timeline aims to provide a simple list which puts together in one place:
the dates of the kings and queens of England
key historical events, mostly for the UK
the dates for which significant classes of record existed or when they were modified in form (yellow)
key dates of ap Adam, Badham and variant references (blue).
to 1831 recording accounts from the Sheriffs, etc.
ANGEVIN (from 1154)
John, 27 May
First of records which contain grants of titles, land and privileges, continue to 1937.
First surviving these continue to 1920.
to 1212 King John campaigns against the Welsh.
Llewelyn ab Iorwerth starts a period of successful conquest of English and Marcher holdings.
First version of accepted by King John at Runnymede although quickly repudiated, one milestone in the struggles between the Crown and the barons, includes the expression 'law of the March'.
Henry lll (9 years old)
Treaty of Worcester with Llewelyn the Great.
Rise of Hubert de Burgh, King's Justicar, powerful in Wales to his fall in 1232.
Llywelyn ab Iorwerth has setbacks.
Llywelyn active again for a while in alliance with Richard Marshal, 6th Earl of Pembroke to 1234.
Morgan ap Howell cedes Caerleon.
Death of Llywelyn ab Iorwerth, his heir. Dafydd forced to submit to Henry lll in 1241.
Around this date start to survive until the abolition of feudal tenure in 1660. Held after the death of a tenant of the Crown they record estates / manors held, details of the widow and heir and sometimes subtenants, etc.
1245 Welsh Revolt started under Gryffudd ab Iorwerth ab Llywelyn who is killed 1244.
and others, witness charter giving lands to Tintern Abbey.
Death of Dafydd ab Iorwerth ab Llewelyn.
Charter to , Steward of Gwent confirming his lands in Gwent.
Lord of Allt y bela and Llanbadoc Gwent (near Usk) dead by 1267.
Simon de Montfort and 6 barons demand Henry lll reforms his administration and Henry accepts reform proposals.
Committee of 24 appointed by Council of Oxford to produce Provisions of Oxford. Council of barons elected to control administration jointly with King. Henry and barons take oath to observe Provisions.
Edward agrees to Provisions.
Provisions of Westminster: permanent changes to legal system as proposed by barons.
Hereford Cathedral chained library built.
Papal bull published absolving Henry from oath to maintain reforms.
Ashperton, Herefordshire, granted to Prince Edward, later part of Duchy of Lancaster.
Meeting of barons to demand Henry's adherence to Provisions of Oxford. Henry refuses and de Montfort's party take arms to subdue southern England.
Henry accepts barons' terms and later in the year declares his support for Provisions of Oxford and leaves for France.
Henry and Prince Edward arrive in England and war against the barons begins.
de Montfort defeats Royalists, Henry captured, Edward taken hostage.
Peace of Canterbury: government reform confirmed.
Barons condemned by Louis lX and papal legatee – they are later excommunicated.
Royalists, led by Roger Mortimer, are still resisting in Welsh Marches. Simon de Montfort imposes terms.
Prince Edward escapes from custody and joins Earl of Gloucester and Roger Mortimer.
De Montfort defeated and killed, Henry rescued.
Beginning of first war for the independence of Wales - to 1277.
sometime wife of granted manor of Penyard Regis, County Gloucester.
Earl of Gloucester quarrels with other royalists and occupies London with some of the rebels.
Statute of Marlborough: confirms laws in Provisions of Westminster and imposes legal obligation to observe Magna Carta.
Monmouth lordship to Duchy of Lancaster. succeeds his father
Prince Edward leaves for the Crusade.
Edward reaches Acre on the Crusade.
Henry lll dies 16 Nov.
Edward l, 20 Nov
Thomas Cantilupe to Bishopric of Hereford, dies in Italy 1280.
First parliament of Edward I's reign.
First regular customs duty imposed on exports of wool and leather.
Edward l begins successful campaign against Llewelyn of Wales.
'Arthur's bones' reinterred at Glastonbury Abbey.
starts to appear in records and by using ap(b) Adam institutes the surname. is appointed Royal Justiciary for west Wales.
Edward organises Round Table tournament at Nefyn, Wales.
Statute of Westminster (ll) defines rights of heirs and limits on alienation of property and also introduces idea of entail.
Remains of Thomas Cantilupe removed to Hereford Cathedral.
Revolt in south Wales.
King issues protection to going with Earl of Norfolk into Wales. John de Badham is owed 20 marks (C 241 /7/194)
, Archer at Dryslwyn Castle, Carmarthenshire, West Wales.
Welsh revolt suppressed.
Mappa Mundi drawn by Richard of Haldingham, prebendary of Hereford Cathedral.
Edward meets Scottish magnates at Norham Castle; his right as overlord to decide succession to Scottish throne is recognised.
12 claimants to Scottish throne submit claims to Edward at Berwick.
Edward declares John Balliol, King of Scotland (distant cousin of previous king).
Balliol pays homage to Edward.
Edward limits right to practise in law courts to those chosen by judges.
Legal education given to their apprentices by practitioners becomes standardised.
Inns of Chancery and Court develop as hostels and centres of learning (Strand Inn is first in 1294).
Roger Bygod, Earl of Norfolk and Earl Marshal of England makes first known grant to of property in Tidenham and permission for a park enclosure.
grants his land and part of the ferry to a Bristol Burgess.
Inquisition Post Mortem of Gilbert The Red records that in Usk, Gwent, 180 burgages were burnt or empty and 104 houses ruinous through poverty as a result of war of independence. Similar at Trellech.
Battle of Falkirk, 's coat of arms recorded amongst those present.
Edward's army defeat Scots under Wallace; archers armed with longbow decide battle.
summoned to Parliament creating, according to some, a barony.
Edward l campaigns unsuccessfully in Scotland.
Edward makes truce with Scots.
seals Baron's letter to the Pope about the Scottish succession.
Edward l invests son Prince Edward with all royal lands in Wales and title Prince of Wales.
Roger Bygod Earl of Norfolk surrenders his earldom to the King in exchange for a life tenancy and an extra £1,000 (20%) per year.
Prince Edward to marry Isabella daughter of Philip lV of France following Treaty of Paris with France and England's recovery of Gascony.
about - birth of aron John's son.
Prince Edward leads English army invasion of Scotland.
Edward l goes north to Lanercost, near Carlisle, now very ill, and Roger Bygod, Earl Marshal dies. Roger's estates revert to the King and not his brother, possibly as a result of a settlement to deal with enormous debts some of which, at least, may have been as a result of service with the King in the Scottish campaigns.
Edward l dies at Burgh-upon-Sands, Solway.
Edward ll, 8 July
Edward ll leaves Scotland after a short campaign; makes favourite Piers Gaveston, a Gascon, Earl of Cornwall.
Edward ll dissolves Order of Knights Templar as ordered by the Pope.
Edward marries Isabella at Boulogne; Gaveston is made Regent.
Edward's coronation oath binds him to keep future laws and customs passed by consent of the realm.
Bruce defeats remaining Scottish enemies.
24 Nov: has indemnity for debts due the exchequer by his father and is involved constantly in the Scottish wars to 1315.
Parliament at Stanford: Gaveston allowed back in return for Edward ll's promise to reform administration.
Scots hold most of Scotland north of a line Forth to Clyde.
Edward ll agrees to election of 21 Lords Ordainers to reform his household and government.
Edward and Gaveston fail to penetrate the north of Scotland.
Gilbert de Clare complains that Anthony, Bishop of Durham and others carried away his jewels, gold, silver... goods...charters and muniments from Tewkesbury Abbey. is one appointed to investigate.
Death of Baron . The King apparently wanted to grant the w to his favourite, Hugh Despenser the Younger but the wardship settled on Ralph Monthermer who was partly based at Chepstow and formerly married to King Edward l's daughter Joan. He was known as Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, in right of Joan's estates, but by this time is married to Isabell de Hastings a daughter of Hugh Despenser the Elder, so there is still a Despenser family involvement.
Edward ll returns from Scotland.
Ordinances published in parliament: Edward's advisers plus Gaveston to be dismissed and barons to control King's affairs.
Edward and Gaveston spend Christmas together at Windsor.
Edward prepares to fight barons led by Thomas, Earl of Lancaster his first cousin.
Gaveston captured at Scarborough and killed at Kenilworth by order of Lancaster and 3 other earls.
Edward agrees to pardon Lancaster and his party but they refuse to apologise.
Barons apologise publicly to Edward and accept his pardon.
After Edward's defeat by the Scots at Bannockburn the barons under Earl of Lancaster take charge.
to 1317 – heavy rain ruins harvest: widespread famine.
Edward ll confirms Ordinances and accepts Earl of Lancaster as Chief Councillor.
to Bishopric of Hereford. He is tightly involved with Mortimer his Marcher patron whose main base is at Wigmore, Herefordshire.
Scot's army ravages Ireland but loses support outside Ulster and abandons siege of Dublin.
Roger Mortimer becomes Justicar of Ireland and pushes Scots back to the north.
Edward openly hostile to Earl of Lancaster and reinstates favourites.
Earl of Pembroke, arguably, forms new (Middle) party, is pledged to maintain Ordinances and support Edward ll.
Edward reconciled to Earl of Lancaster and Hugh Despenser, his new favourite, is made Chamberlain.
Bishop Orleton succeeds in having Thomas Cantilupe canonised, beginning of pilgrimages to his shrine in Hereford Cathedral.
Marcher lords resent increased power of Hugh Despenser, form alliance and seize Despenser lands in south Wales and parliament forces banishment of the two Despensers.
Edward raises an army and recalls the Despensers.
Edward turns the tables at Boroughbridge and barons lose power. Lancaster declared a rebel and executed. Mortimer and other enemies of King punished.
Edward's favourites are reinstated and take revenge where they can. The Despensers father and son effectively establish a 'corrupt dictatorship'.
Ordinances repealed; Despensers given new lands; elder Hugh Despenser made Earl of Winchester.
Edward ll makes 13-year truce with Scots.
Mortimer escapes from the Tower to exile in France.
, Baron John's heir is of age, becomes known as Sir Thomas.
Charles lV of France invades Gascony.
Queen Isabella goes to France to negotiate truce with Charles lV; later Prince Edward joins her to pay homage for Gascony.
Isabella and Mortimer become lovers.
Isabella refuses to return with son unless Despensers are removed from power.
Queen Isabella and Mortimer invade England and rule the kingdom, ousting the Despensers. Sir , perhaps taking advantage of the power shift, complains in Chancery that his castle of Beverstone had been broken into and wrecked and that 70 charters had been stolen. Beverstone is close to Berkeley and hence vulnerable to the ups and downs of the battle between the barons and the King and his favourites.
Assembly of barons at Bristol announce Prince Edward as Keeper of the Realm in place of King.
Elder Despenser captured at Bristol and executed.
Edward ll and younger Despenser captured at Neath Abbey and younger Despenser executed.
Orleton translated to bishopric of Worcester.
Edward ll imprisoned in Kenilworth Castle: abdicates.
Edward lll, 25 Jan
Edward ll imprisoned in Berkeley Castle - is allegedly murdered by .
Mortimer and Queen Isabella control administration.
, Lord of Beverstone, grants lands and tenements in Tickenham, Somerset to sons. and . Presumed illegitimate sons. Thomas senior is only about 24 so these are children.
England ratifies treaty drawn up in Edinburgh and Robert Bruce recognised as King of Scotland.
Mortimer makes himself Earl of March.
4 May: grants Manor of Purton by Lydney to William de Cheltenham.
8 May: Sir acknowledges £100 owed to Miles de Rodbergh (£45,000 in 2010).
4 June: 'for settlement of divers disputes' over land executes a complex deed with Sir son of Hugh, which appears to give more to de Gurney than Thomas gets in return, so there may have been more debts here.
28 Aug: he also quitclaims a holding in Beverston to son of .
24 June: similar acknowledgement to Sir John Inge for £700 to whom, before or after this, in the same year he demised lands inherited from his grandmother, at Penyard and La Lee in the Forest of Dean. This grant may also be a marriage settlement for his son who later married a daughter (step?) of John Inge. Total debts recorded here amount to equivalent of about £360,000 at today's prices.
Edmund, Earl of Kent son of Edward l, executed for opposing Mortimer and Queen Isabella.
Edward lll seizes and executes Mortimer at Nottingham.
In this year Sir Thomas (III), Lord Berkeley buys 's major holdings, the 'manors of Barewe (Barrow Gurney) Beverston and all the lordships he has in counties of Gloucester and Somerset and later the same year reversion of Monewden, Suffolk.
Chancery records show Sir complaining further that his wife was stolen away from him and goods stolen by son of Hugh and others and still withhold his wife.
Bishop Orleton moves again, to diocese of Winchester.
s arms appear on an Ashmole Roll. (Bodlein MS Ash Rolls 19)
Hundred Years War with France begins.
, nephew of Adam Orleton becomes Bishop of Hereford until he dies in 1361.
to 1350 - Black Death in England and Wales, kills about a quarter of the population of Wales. Rents from Lordship of Abergavenny down two-thirds. This may account for all the deaths in the Inge Basset family and of .
Thomas (III) Lord Berkeley grants Beachley estate and ferry back to at rent of 10 marks p.a. A mark is two-thirds of a pound i.e. 160d and 10 marks (£6 13s 4d) nowadays about £3,000 which seems a generous grant and is permanent to
French lose severely at Battle of Poitiers.
Approx. time of the birth of the Chronicler .
a younger son of Sir as eventual heir to his father confirms sale by his father of Beverston, Over and Barrow Gurney releasing any rights to Katherine de Berkeley, Lady of Wotton and John de Berkeley and their heirs, remainder to Thomas de Berkeley. In the same year we have the earliest known record so far, of an holding land in Hereford City, in Guldforde Street and Hugh de Rodebergh quitclaims manor of Cerncote from a life interest presumably the end of the debt settlement from 46 years ago (see 1329).
Richard ll, 22 June
Peasants' Revolt, John Ball, Lollard priest uses 'When Adam delved and Eve span, who then was the gentleman?'
Battle of Radcot Bridge, the King's supporters lose, one example only of the continuing struggle between barons and Crown. Power shifts back to the King in 1389.
Richard upsets Henry of Lancaster banished in France by seizing the Lancastrian estates upon the death of John of Gaunt. As a result Richard is deserted, captured and abdicates.
HOUSE OF LANCASTER
Henry lV, 30 Sept
Henry made King by Parliamentary Grant.
Richard ex the Second 'dies' at Pontefract.
Glendower uprisings to 1409.
incumbent at Aconbury parish, Herefordshire.
and his wife of Llanllowel sell Sherncote to Thomas (IV) Lord Berkeley
Sir John Oldcastle whose home is near Ewyas Lacy, Herefordshire and who is leader of the Lollards is executed for heresy.
Probably the same (1413) is incumbent at Llanrothal, right on the River Monnow bordering Gwent, a few miles from Ewyas Lacy.
Henry V, 21 Mar
of Raglan at Battle of Agincourt with Davy Gam his father-in-law.
Henry Vl, 1 Sept
20 Nov: death of son of John above (1375) last of the baronial male line. John's sister is his heiress and marries Thomlyn Huntley.
dies, mentions his kinsman in his will.
Duke of Gloucester dies in captivity soon to be followed by his rival the Duke of Beaufort.
'Wars of the Roses' civil war, between York and Lancastrian parties, breaks out.
is incumbent at Bridenbury near Bromyard, Herefordshire.
HOUSE OF YORK
Edward lV, 4 Mar
Following defeat of the Lancastrians at Mortimers Cross, Herefordshire (near Wigmore). By 1463 Wales alone is holding out for Henry Vl.
son of created Earl of Pembroke.
Earl of Pembroke on the wrong side at the battle of Banbury and beheaded by the victorious Lancastrians.
Henry Vl restored by 'Kingmaker' Earl of Warwick.
Henry Vl dies mysteriously in the tower leaving Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond sole Lancastrian claimant to the throne.
Edward V, 9 Apr
Richard lll, 26 Jun
HOUSE OF TUDOR
Henry Vll, 22 Aug
Defeat of Richard lll at Bosworth by Henry Tudor. A large increase in Welsh influence at court is one outcome.
established which by 1504 covers almost every crime. The records are in The National Archives and continue to the court's abolition in 1641.
Henry Vlll, 22 Apr
First calendared and indexed example of series which are about ownership of land and property. Indexed calendars continue at least to 1798.
, Groom of the Chamber gets his 'Watchyng' clothing for the lying in state of Henry Vll and the grant of the tolls of Knighton.
Defeat of French at Battle of Spurs at Guinegate. is present. In the same year the invading Scots are defeated at Flodden with the loss of 10,000 men.
Charles Booth - Bishop of Hereford, whose family are later described as kinsmen to the s of Breinton. , page of the Chamber is granted tolls of Knighton. Perhaps son of first grantee?
Henry tries out peace with France and the two monarchs meet in France at the Field of Cloth of the Gold and
Wolsey falls and dies on the way to his execution - he had brief connection with Hereford Cathedral holding a prebend there for a while but possibly absent.
Henry secretly marries Ann Boleyn.
Henry Vlll breaks with Rome and declares himself the 'only supreme head on earth of the Church of England'.
The moves to suppress the monasteries and chantries is underway. inducted as Vicar of Dormington, Herefordshire.
First of the Acts which unified Wales with the English system of administration and inter alia produced the boundaries of the counties and country more or less as we know them today.
to be recorded weekly by the parson, witnessed by the churchwarden and a 'sure coffer' to be provided, one key for parson, one for the churchwarden.
Last of the Acts of Union of England and Wales.
Edward Vl, 28 Jan
Death of Groom of the Chamber.
Mary, 6 Jul
Mass restored, but not papal supremacy or church lands.
Philip and Mary, 25 Jul
pluralist vicar in Herefordshire gets his first parish at Dormington. He later adds Bartestree, Weston Beggard, Dixton, Humber, Sutton St Nicholas, Bridstow and sequentially the prebends of Pratum Minor and Putson. Possibly son of (1535)?
Loss of Calais and death of Mary.
Elizabeth l, 17 Nov
Reference to of Cwmwdig, Pembrokeshire.
- all loose-leaf parish records of BMDs to be transcribed into bound books to be kept in the Parish Chest (see 1538) especially those since 1558. Incumbents required to send transcripts of all BMDs to the diocesan bishop each Easter
HOUSE OF STUART
James l of England and
Vl of Scotland, 24 Mar
Virginia Company founded by Royal Charter, the first settlement in the colony being at Jamestown.
Charles l, 27 Mar
age 40 arrives in Virginia.
Margaret and another arrive in Virginia, perhaps John's family?
To 1642: a kind of petition organised by Parliament against 'an arbitrary and tyranical Government' (records at the House of Lords).
Aug. Civil War begins – Royalist capital is Oxford.
To 1645: (often ignored).
July, first civil war ends
Second civil war starts.
Charles l executed 30 Jan.
Parish registers officially transferred from parson to the government in the form of a locally appointed registrar and a one shilling fee introduced thus reducing the level of registration!
and as a result couples marrying in church did not register. This and above Act repealed at the Restoration.
Will of listed in Prerogative Court of Armagh in Ireland.
Restoration of STUARTS
(Regnal years counted from death of his father. 1660 is therefore year 12 and counts from 29th May. 1661 starts from 30 Jan.)
appointed Vicar Choral and Organist at Hereford Cathedral - dies 1688. New organ to replace one destroyed by puritans, just completed before his death.
Feb 1: King and his Court return to London after the plague.
Sept 2-6: Great Fire of London.
econd Act in 1678 requires relatives to sign affidavit recorded in the parish register.
- The church Provinces of Canterbury and York count numbers of communicants. Sometimes returns include names and family details, but vary considerably in content and form.
James ll, 6 Feb
Duke of Monmouth's rebellion, an attempt to depose Catholic James ll.
William of Orange lands in Torbay, James ll leaves for France. Interregnum 12 Dec to 12 Feb 1689.
William and Mary ll
William lll (of Orange)
'means tested'. Also all births to be notified to parson for sixpenny fee because of increase in nonconformist baptism reducing parsons' income.
- oaths of loyalty to Crown required from public officials but also taken by others of substance.
Anne, 8 Mar
HOUSE OF HANOVER
George l, 1 Aug
First Jacobite uprising.
George ll, 11 June
Dies 1742. instituted Vicar of Lyonshall, Herefordshire.
Second Jacobite uprising. describes London rejoicing after Battle of Culloden the following year.
describes the fire in Exchange Alley, London.
from the solar year and this was corrected by making the 3rd Sept the 14th.
If double notation not used these would be written 1 Jan 1742, etc. as it had previously. Before this, dates in Jan, Feb and March were recorded as in the previous year and hence the double year notation system, e.g. 1742/3 in the three months 1 Jan to 24 March of 1743.
(England and Wales) inter alia, improves the recording of marriages, aimed at reducing clandestine marriages. Minors to obtain consent of parents or guardians. Bound specially printed forms to be used.
George lll, 25 Oct
begin - law and order including transportation, police, aliens, naturalisation.
Penal colony of New South Wales initiated.
5 April: marries first wife in Edinburgh. He later became Physician to the Duke of Sussex and Professor of Physic at the University of Glasgow 1827.
First British missionaries reach New Zealand.
Act to abolish the slave trade.
Regency from 6 Feb
Roses Act – printed books for parish registers for baptism and burial in addition to the marriage format from the Hardwick Act (1754).
from Holmer, Herefordshire reaches Hull, Canada with imported Hereford cattle.
Two s arrive in NSW transported to serve fourteen and seven years.
George lV, 29 Jan
, Physician to the Duke of Sussex, one of a committee urging the adoption of vaccination against smallpox.
declaring clandestine marriages valid but the officiating minister a felon.
William lV, 26 June
Slavery abolished but with a long implementation period lasting to 1838.
Victoria, 20 June
First edition of 'Esculent Funguses' by son of Charles (1822) and Margaret née Campbell.
about - birth of a carpenter who built houses and churches in Edenton, North Carolina, USA, which still stand. He was a member of a prominent black family.
12 Apr: Civil war starts in USA.
1 Jan: in USA proclamation to emancipate the slaves comes into force.
Parliament abolishes transportation of criminals to the colonies and USA Civil war ends.
, younger, full brother of above becomes Professor of Classics and Logic at Sydney University, NSW.
marries . By 1882 has 586 acres (237.1 ha) worth £4,292 in Orari in the Canterbury district of South Island, New Zealand near town of Timaru.
First shipment of frozen New Zealand lamb leaves Timaru.
HOUSE OF SAXE- COBERG AND GOTHA
Edward Vll, 22 Jan
George V, 6 May
HOUSE OF WINDSOR
Declared by George V and privy council thus dropping the surname of Prince Albert, Queen Victoria's Consort.
First Adoption of Children Act.
started under the Registrar General.
Edward VIII, 20 Jan
George VI, 11 Dec
Elizabeth II, 6 Feb
Badham One Name Society formed.